Glenn L. Martin Company
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Glenn L. Martin Company

August 15, 2019

The Glenn L. Martin Company was an
American aircraft and aerospace manufacturing company that was founded
by the aviation pioneer Glenn L. Martin. The Martin Company produced many
important aircraft for the defense of the United States and its allies,
especially during World War II and the Cold War. Also, during the 1950s and
60s, the Martin Company moved gradually out of the aircraft industry and into
the guided missile, space exploration, and space utilization industries.
In 1961, the Martin Company merged with the American-Marietta Corporation, a
large sand and gravel mining company, forming the Martin Marietta Corporation.
Then, in 1995, Martin Marietta merged with aerospace giant Lockheed to form
the Lockheed Martin Corporation. History
=Origins=Glenn L. Martin Company was founded by
aviation pioneer Glenn Luther Martin on August 16, 1912. Martin started out
building military trainers in Santa Ana, California, and then in 1916, Martin
accepted a merger offer from the Wright Company, creating the Wright-Martin
Aircraft Company in September. This new company did not go well, and Glenn
Martin left it to form a second Glenn L. Martin Company on September 10, 1917.
This time it was based in Cleveland, Ohio.
=World War I=Martin’s first big success came during
World War I with the MB-1 bomber, a large biplane design ordered by the
United States Army on January 17, 1918. The MB-1 entered service after the end
of hostilities, but a follow up design, the MB-2, was also proved successful and
20 were ordered by the Army Air Service, the first five of them under the company
designation and the last 15 as the NBS-1. Although the War Department
ordered 110 more, it retained the ownership rights to the design and put
the order out for bid. Unfortunately for Martin, the production orders were given
to other companies that had bid lower, Curtiss, L.W.F. Engineering, and
Aeromarine. The design was the only standard bomber used by the Air Service
until 1930 and was used by seven squadrons of the Air Service/Air Corps:
four in Virginia, two in Hawaii, and one in the Philippines.
=Inter-war years=In 1924 the Martin Company underbid
Curtiss for the production of a Curtiss-designed scout bomber, the SC-1,
and ultimately Martin produced 404 of these. In 1929 Martin sold the Cleveland
plant and built a new one in Middle River, Maryland, northeast of Baltimore.
During the 1930s, Martin built flying boats for the U.S. Navy, and the
innovative Martin B-10 bomber for the Army. The Martin Company also produced
the noted China Clipper flying boats used by Pan American Airways for its
transpacific San Francisco to the Philippines route.
=World War II=During World War II, a few of Martin’s
most successful designs were the B-26 Marauder and A-22 Maryland bombers, the
PBM Mariner and JRM Mars flying boats, widely used for air-sea rescue,
anti-submarine warfare and transport. The 1941 Office for Emergency Management
film Bomber was filmed in the Martin facility in Baltimore, and showed
aspects of the production of the B-26. Martin ranked 14th among United States
corporations in the value of wartime production contracts. The Martin Company
built a total of 531 Boeing B-29 Superfortresses and 1,585 B-26 Marauders
at its Omaha, Nebraska, plant at Offutt Field. Among the B-29s manufactured
there were all the Silverplate aircraft, including Enola Gay and Bockscar which
dropped the two, war-ending atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan.
=Postwar=On April 22, 1957, the company name was
formally changed to The Martin Company. Postwar efforts in aeronautics by the
Martin Company included two unsuccessful prototype bombers, the XB-48 and the
XB-51, the marginally successful AM Mauler, the successful B-57 Canberra
tactical bombers, both the P5M Marlin and P6M SeaMaster seaplanes, and the
Martin 4-0-4 twin-engine passenger airliner.
The Martin Company moved forward into the aerospace manufacturing business,
and it produced the Vanguard rocket, which was used by the American space
program as one of its first satellite booster rockets as part of Project
Vanguard. The Vanguard was the first American space exploration rocket
designed from scratch to be an orbital launch vehicle — rather than being a
modified sounding rocket or a ballistic missile. Martin also designed and
manufactured the huge and heavily armed Titan I and LGM-25C Titan II
Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles. Martin Company of Orlando, Florida, was
the prime contractor for the U.S. Army’s Pershing missile.
The Martin Company was also one of two finalists for the Command and Service
Modules of the Apollo Program. Unfortunately for Martin, NASA awarded
the design and production contracts for these to the North American Aviation
Corporation. The Martin Company went further in the
production of even larger booster rockets for the National Aeronautics and
Space Administration and the U.S. Air Force with its Titan III series of over
100 rockets produced, including the Titan IIIA, the more-important Titan
IIIC, and the Titan IIIE. Besides hundreds of Earth satellites, these
rockets were essential for the sending to outer space of the two space probes
of the Voyager Project to the outer planets the two space probes of the
Viking Project to Mars, and the two Helios probes into low orbits around the
Sun.. Finally the U.S. Air Force required a
booster rocket that could launch heavier satellites than either the Titan IIIE or
the Space Shuttle. The Martin Company responded with its extremely large Titan
IV series of rockets. When the Titan IV came into service, it could carry a
heavier payload to orbit than any other rocket “except” for NASA’s Saturn V
rocket — which was no longer in production and thus was a machine from
history. Besides its use by the Air Force to launch its sequence of very
heavy reconnaissance satellites, one Titan IV, with a powerful Centaur rocket
upper stage, was used to launch the heavy Cassini space probe to the planet
Saturn in 1997. The Cassini probe has been in orbit around Saturn since 2004,
successfully returning mountains of scientific data.
The halting of production of the Titan IV in 2004 brought to an end production
of the last rocket able to carry a heavier payload than the Space Shuttle,
which itself ended in 2011. The Martin Company merged with the
American-Marietta Corporation, a chemical products and construction
materials manufacturer, in 1961 to form the Martin Marietta Corporation. In
1995, Martin Marietta, then the nation’s 3rd-largest defense contractor, merged
with the Lockheed Corporation, then the nation’s second largest defense
contractor, to form the Lockheed Martin Corporation, becoming the largest such
company in the world. The Martin Company employed many of the
founders and chief engineers of the American aerospace industry, including:
Dandridge M. Cole – moved on as aerospace engineer at General Electric
Donald Douglas – founder of Douglas Aircraft, later as McDonnell Douglas
Lawrence Dale Bell – founded Bell Aircraft, now Bell Helicopter
James S. McDonnell – founded McDonnell Aircraft, later as McDonnell Douglas
J.H. “Dutch” Kindleberger – CEO and Chairman of North American Aviation
Hans Multhopp – concepts used to create NASA’s Space Shuttle
C. A. Van Dusen – Brewster Aeronautical Corporation
Martin also taught William Boeing how to fly and also sold him his first
airplane. Products
=Training aircraft=Martin T
Martin S Martin N2M
=Bombers and Attack aircraft=Martin MB-1
Martin NBS-1 Martin XNBL-2
Martin T3M Martin T4M
Martin XLB-4 Martin XT6M
Martin B-10XB-13O-15/O-45 Martin BM-1
Martin BM-2 Martin 146
Martin XB-16 Martin 167 Maryland
Martin B-26 Marauder Martin B-29 Superfortress
Martin XB-27 Martin 187 Baltimore
Martin XB-33 Super Marauder Martin B-35A
Martin AM Mauler Martin P4M Mercator
Martin XB-48 Martin XB-51
Martin B-57 under license from English Electric
Martin RB-57D Canberra Martin/General Dynamics RB-57F Canberra
Martin 316/XB-68=Reconnaissance and observation
aircraft=Martin S
Martin MS Martin MO
Martin M2O-1 Martin XO-4
=Military seaplanes=Martin PM-1
Martin XP2M Martin P3M
Martin PM-2 Martin PBM Mariner
Martin JRM Mars Martin PBB-1
Martin P5M Marlin Martin P6M SeaMaster
Martin P7M SubMaster=Civil aviation airliners=
Martin 70 Martin M-130 China Clipper
Martin M-156 Martin 2-0-2
Martin 3-0-3 Martin SeaMistress
Martin 4-0-4=Other types of aircraft=
Naval Aircraft Factory NO=Aircraft engines=
Martin 333, a four-cylinder inverted in-line piston engine
=Missiles and rockets=AAM-N-4 Oriole
ASM-N-5 Gorgon V MGM-1 Matador
MGM-13 Mace MGM-18 Lacrosse
Bold Orion Titan
SM-68 Titan HGM-25A Titan I
LGM-25C Titan II Viking
=Booster rockets=The four-stage Vanguard rocket
Titan II GLV Titan III
Titan IIIB Titan IIIC
Titan IV In addition, after the removal of 54
Titan IIs from alert status as ICBMs in the mid-1980s, about 50 of them were
used as satellite launchers by the U.S. Air Force. The rest of them were either
scrapped or used as museum pieces, such as at the Kansas Cosmosphere in
Hutchinson, Kansas. See also
Martin State Airport References
External links Glenn L Martin Maryland Aviation Museum
Historic American Engineering Record No. MD-136, “Glenn L. Martin Aircraft
Company Plant No. 2, 2800 Eastern Boulevard, Middle River, Baltimore
County, MD”, 3 photos, 5 data pages, 1 photo caption page
HAER No. MD-136-A, “Glenn L. Martin Aircraft Company Plant No. 2,
Administration Building”, 3 photos, 1 photo caption page
HAER No. MD-136-B, “Glenn L. Martin Aircraft Company Plant No. 2, Assembly
Building”, 10 photos, 2 photo caption pages
HAER No. MD-136-C, “Glenn L. Martin Aircraft Company Plant No. 2, Drop
Hammer Building”, 2 photos, 1 photo caption page
HAER No. MD-136-D, “Glenn L. Martin Aircraft Company Plant No. 2, Paint
Shop”, 1 photo, 1 photo caption page

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