Refraction – Stick & Shadow – Mirage – Experiments – FAQ – Documentary – Flat Earth Discussion

September 27, 2019

here we will run an experiment and prove
that light refracts and even bends in the air we will show how this affects
the famous stick and shadow experiment we will show that the method by
Eratosthenes to prove around Earth is completely unreliable we will show how
refraction can cause the Sun and Moon to curve towards you we will explain why
refraction is one of the most important topics in Flat Earth and how it works
greatly in favor of it other topics covered will be the stratosphere density
gradients Snell’s law fata morgana and mirages nikola tesla the son calc
website sunsets the azimuth equidistant map the false math of relativity the
diameter of the Sun the moon’s face light speed fallacy in several other
topics if you want to see specific topics here is a table of contents
however we recommend that you watch the entire video especially the parts on
refraction in our last video we proved that air density can cause the Sun to
get cut off from the bottom because air isn’t transparent however now people
have asked about the sun’s position in the sky in its elevation angle and if it
could truly set based on estimations of its size I decided to make one final
video on the subject to cover other important topics a few which have not
been discussed yet in the Flat Earth movement in the experiment we made sure
to make accurate measurements to determine the altitude of a laser
pointer using the stick and shadow method we simulate refraction in the
atmosphere using a pail of water then we triangulate the difference in altitude
first you can see the setup of this experiment so you can try it at home you
would need a laser pointer a pail of water a thin stick and a tape measurer
we made measurements and marked them we ran the experiment several times and
with different lights the stick and shadow experiment method of measuring
the sun’s distance is one of the oldest round earth experiments it was widely
ignored for thousands of years by all of the major cultures and religions until
the theories became popular again in Europe the technique involves measuring
the height of a shadow compared to the object that casts it then you have a
right-angled triangle if you measure the distance of that city to a second city
or a city that is 90 degrees below the Sun you can get a very good guess of the
height of the Sun Eratosthenes guessed that the earth might be round because he
was unable to get accurate lock on the sun’s altitude from
this experiment it’s worth pointing out that the stick and shadow is much worse
at predicting the sun’s altitude and around Earth and it does not even use to
do so the experiment is a complete fallacy mainly because the atmosphere is
layered these layers create a density gradient each layer will refract the
light in a different direction because the refractive index of the primary
elements it contains will be different from our example we prove how and moving
from air to water the shadow will increase resulting in a lower than
expected elevation the reverse is true when moving from water to air or more
specifically from a high refractive environment to a low one here you can
see us move the water in and out of the path of the laser there are a few things
that happen first the shadow length increases a couple of inches also we can
tell that the position of the light on the ground has changed additionally the
diameter of the light has increased this works against around Earth especially
when they say they don’t see an increase in the sun’s diameter at sunset mainly
because the Sun would pass through water and other refractive mediums and
absolutely increase its appearance if their claim had any truth in it
furthermore you can even see the angle change within the water which is quite
beautiful if we film from under the basin we can see the Sun change
positions to prove that the plastic container does not greatly exaggerate
the shadow or light we remove it from the light although it does cause a
slight difference it’s not as significant as the water we take the
water out of the container and pour it back end in this segment you can watch
as the shadow grows in the light you can also watch the light change positions on
the ground and here for comparative purposes we shine a regular light on the
stick here we show how the shape of the container such as in the case of with a
cloud can do the reverse and shrink the shadow causing the appearance of a
higher Sun we show side-by-side a ball of crystal in the round water container
at the conclusion of this experiment we triangulated the values of the
measurements to show the difference in altitude the results are shown here in a
moment we will teach you how to triangulate these many flat earthers say
the Sun is three thousand miles up it is unclear what experiment is used to know
the true height of the Sun our guess is no such experiment will exist anytime
soon in any case this would mean a twenty five degree
angle at sunset obviously even with air density blocking the Sun that is hard to
justify it turns out that the Sun and Moon tend to set on the horizon at
roughly 10,000 kilometers away from the observer if the stick and shadow
experiment changed due to atmosphere the questioner rains and which direction
does it change and how does this affect both models first of all for every
question we answer there will always be two new questions we are all in the
search for truth with the exception of the enemies of truth of course the
question you need to ask yourself is what model has greater margin of error a
flat earth or a round one and the game of pool the longer the shot the more
difficult it is to make if you are going to claim the Sun is 93 million miles
away even the slightest change in angle of elevation will debunk your model let
me introduce you to the absolute beauty of refraction in this video you can see
how light bends and water in our experiment the angle was straight but
what’s happening here why is light bending well the best part is you can
repeat this experiment at home you just need a pail of water some sugar and a
laser pointer in our last video we discussed buoyancy well the sugar
dissolves in the water and then goes to the bottom of the pail to make the
experiment even more fun try adding different dyes or even try adding oil
you can see in each medium the lights angle will do something completely
different this is what is called a density gradient our atmosphere is a
giant density gradient it is filled with many different chemicals the troposphere
contains a lot of water humidity can be 30 to 70% the lower atmosphere is mostly
nitrogen and oxygen it also includes argon helium hydrogen methane and many
other chemicals there is other levels of the atmosphere
unfortunately off-limits to citizens the highest unmanned balloon the citizen has
launched into the sky was 53 kilometers because of buoyancy helium and hydrogen
rise therefore there is a tremendous amount of those elements in the
stratosphere there is the ozone layer filled with oh three oxygen and there is
the magnetosphere the magnetosphere can ionize the air and obviously a magnet
can have a profound effect on light this effect is called the Faraday effect
it’s where the polarization of light is rotate
while it travels through transparent materials there are many lab experiments
to show electromagnetic effects on light also this is a field that requires a lot
more study some scientists say that magnets don’t affect light but consider
that light is moving at extreme speeds so a single magnet may not be too
noticeable however a giant magnetic field such as the Earth’s field can
certainly affect light as you can see buoyancy absolutely must separate the
elements of greater densities this means that NASA is clearly not
telling us the truth about the elements contained in the stratosphere and they
are probably not telling the truth about the air pressure there either when
hydrogen and helium rise they obviously do not disappear
no they settle at the top and they stay there it is almost unbelievable to say
that nitrogen is the most common element in the sky when there is so much helium
and hydrogen rising not to mention other combinations thereof take a look at our
buoyancy diagram this is what we call a density gradient the cutoff lines are
actually pretty clear let’s take a look at a density gradient in a laboratory
here we can see that the light has bent downwards and then it has bent upwards
in fact they even split the beam of light and recombine it later pretty
amazing right still not convinced take a look at this clip from the North Pole
Sun Mirage they see the Sun during a time of the year where it should have
been impossible it may be due to the magnetic pole or some other refractive
phenomenon there have been many experiments to show how light can bend
up or down in our atmosphere over the water it would be more probable that
light bends downwards very slightly near the ocean line as light descends this is
because as you get closer to the water the amount of water particles increase
this increase in density causes light to go from a refractive medium to an even
more refractive medium this is called Snell’s law this could add to the list
of possible causes for cities to get cut off at the bottom over the water line
what’s cool about Snell’s law is when you send light back angled up from the
water the light can actually Bend upwards this has been seen in different
Flat Earth laser tests the experimenter has to be extremely careful to keep the
laser as straight as possible and over several miles that becomes almost
impossible imagine shooting a pool ball into a hole 10 miles away Snell’s law is
basically an equation that is used for calculating the change in angle of light
as it passes from one medium to another so we can mathematically compute and
guess how much light might Bend in each medium let’s take a look at a refraction
simulator online first you can calculate like going from air into water like in
the case of the city remember the city is on land so the water density is lower
there as you can see the lower the altitude of light projection the more
the light falls when it hits the water as you can see the sharper the angle of
the light the more the light falls when it hits the water
this works in favor of a flat earth in any case because the city skyline would
have more trouble curving over the horizon when moving from air to water
because it refract light downward slightly however if you were in the
ocean and you shine light upwards the reverse happens let’s take a look at
what happens when we go from water to air amazing right the broader the angle
of the light source the less it refracts although in our atmosphere these changes
are subtle they are significant over many miles let’s take a look at this
site here they sort some elements by the refractive index notice that there are
still tons of materials not on this list and they do state that the numbers need
to be verified but this is a great reference so we can see that hydrogen is
four times more refractive than helium and lucky for us hydrogen is more
buoyant so for the 300 or more miles of atmosphere depending on how high you
guess the Sun to be light will travel significant distances bent upwards
towards the observer extreme heat or cold from the Sun can certainly Forge
elements such as helium hydride or even stranger elements it’s fair to say
unless parts of space reach negative 300 degrees we will probably not see liquid
hydrogen however on the internet people seem to say in some cases atmosphere is
extremely cold it creates an inversion layer supposedly
maybe it just depends on where the Sun is it has been estimated that there is
helium hydride in the stratosphere however now if we consider that hydrogen
is above helium this element will form a nice little lens compounding the amount
of refraction that the light experiences even a thin layer would be significant
imagine the light passing through hundreds of tiny little lenses in order
for human hydride to exist it must be in an excited state and I think the
tremendous heat of the stratosphere would be a good catalyst for this I
would like to see some experiments done with refractivity of exotic materials
like these I expect it to be significant you see an element on its own is not
even close to the refractive index of a combined element and the direction of
refract if ‘ti may indeed change depending on the combination for example
water is significantly more refractive than hydrogen or oxygen on their own why
the dramatic change because the elements form a little lens let’s take a look at
the periodic table sorted by density using this we can know how some of the
elements will be ordered in the atmosphere and what direction light will
Bend for each layer but don’t let that dominate your calculations because what
matters is the amount of miles light will travel at the angle before crossing
into the next medium also it matters greatly the different materials in the
atmosphere do not limit your bias to elements only refraction increases
dramatically when you combine elements for example how does ozone affect and
refract light and how thick is the layer don’t count on government space agencies
for honest statistics here for example when light goes from helium to lithium
lithium is only 0.23 refractivity and helium is more than four times more
refractive so again light refracts upwards and quite significantly
lithium passes to argon and light will refract downwards and it will go down
again from argon to nitrogen and then again slightly from nitrogen to oxygen
however a big change will happen when light passes through the water in the
upper atmosphere to air which will refract light upwards again it’s hard to
say how much argon or lithium is in the atmosphere however ionized particles
need to be considered – and particles such as dihydrogen dioxygen and so forth
it’s no surprise that people see sundogs and other anomalies in the sky if you
consider that dihydrogen might exist in the hydrogen layer of the atmosphere
then when moving into helium the refraction angle will be very
significant light will Bend for potentially hundreds of miles up towards
the observer one quick note before we proceed explaining our world is not easy
we realize that there will be some debate over how much light is refracted
what point light refracts up or down whether or not there is a dome and so
forth we are not trying to add to the list of
theories we are simply pointing out a scientific fact that absolutely 100%
must be discussed I’m going to assume that because of how many factors there
are involved that being able to calculate this mathematically is
actually impossible however lucky for us we have evidence that works in favor of
flat earth it’s called advanced sunrise and delayed
sunset this is where the Sun sets later than it should sometimes the Sun rises
earlier than it should this is evidence that sun’s light bends upwards towards
you in fact even according to Wikipedia which is usually very anti conspiracy
the Sun has been seen to set and then rise again only to set and rise within
the same hour this can be found under the entry for atmospheric refraction
although I don’t really like using Wikipedia since news articles have been
published showing the majority of Wikipedia edits in some categories come
from CIA data centers but let’s use it anyways to get some ideas first of all
their image for the Sun is totally bizarre why do they have the sun’s rays
pointing upwards and then bending downwards don’t the majority of the
sun’s rays coming straight in fact if the atmosphere bends light towards us
why does it ever get dark isn’t the Sun of the lens of miles in diameter anyways
the actual diagram should look something more like this here the light comes in
straight and bends up just like we calculated first off it says astronomers
will never shoot a star 20 degrees below the horizon because of refraction then
it says that refraction is caused by the temperature gradient the temperature
pressure and humidity this is extremely interesting did they forget the
refractive index we just got finished looking at refractive indices and they
ignore it but they add some useful information temperature this is a huge
factor in refraction you see that the atmosphere gets extremely cold in some
places and extremely hot and others you will see how much this matters in a
moment here they say something else they say when the bottom of the Sun
touches the horizon it’s true altitude is negative
did you see that that means it shouldn’t even be
and since they are assuming a curved earth imagine if they assumed a flat
earth that would really change all of their calculations it then talks about
an example once of how the Sun set only to rise again an hour later that’s right
an hour later and then it set an hour after that and then it rose and then set
again within the next 20 minutes this is a classic example of advanced sunrise
and sunset then they give some formulas although these formulas might be kind of
useless because they would have to know the exact elements contained in the
atmosphere and the changes in temperature especially in the
thermosphere and then a calculation so complex would never be reduced to such a
trivial equation however this formula is interesting here it says the amount of a
fraction increases 1% for every 3 degrees decrease in temperature and
increases 1% for every 3 degrees increase in temperature how these were
arrived at is not really clear it looks like they base this off of the previous
equations and more assumptions the numbers seem way too linear but if this
is true then the extreme cold or heat would dramatically change refraction is
there an experiment we can do at home to prove this equation probably not and I’m
sure it wouldn’t really give us any help on the extreme heat of the Sun and how
it affects things after all on a hot day over the road light starts bending all
over the place we can probably just relate this to pressure and density cold
air is more compact with more molecules and hot air disperses with less density
so that affects the density gradient this is why hot air balloons rise they
say you can see certain dispersed wavelengths with a refraction corrector
which is a rotating prism but I doubt this would work over long distances
because that light could easily be blocked and reflected also the
refraction of light makes the calculation of stellar parallax
completely impossible especially on the ground in fact refraction pretty much
debunked the idea that stars are travelling up to a billion light years
to reach us the probability that light would be refracted curved and generally
moved all over the place it may as well be a hundred percent since they’re
saying that there are stars that are quintillions and septillion zuv miles
away even a change in a trillionth of one degree would cause
light to miss the earth completely at the very least you would see stars
disappear for a little while to reappear again have you ever watched a light
moving in water notice how it bounces all over the place it’s convenient for
an acid that they’ll tell you that space is just infinite miles of vacuum even
though they’ve really never been out there this is probably another reason
they tell you the galaxies and solar system are flat to avoid the amount of
protests they would get otherwise also if astronomers avoid filming stars
20 degrees above the horizon because of refraction that alone is enough to prove
to you that their calculations and parallax are not scientific or reliable
if you triangulate a ten thousand kilometer Sun set at 300 miles high to
the ends of the stratosphere we get a two to three degree angle of sunset this
certainly makes the Sun easier to block with air in fact anything within 10
degrees is worth discussing another reason why the subject is so important
is because it can potentially explain why the moon only shows one face flat
earthers tend to ignore this problem the moon no matter where you stand shows the
same side what type of magic holography is this well if you consider that the
atmosphere is potentially bending like towards the observer then it makes sense
that a flat light would change its angle towards us in the atmosphere let’s take
a look at some different types of holography while we are on the subject
here you can see a coin appear on top of a cylindrical base no matter what
perspective you view the mirror it looks like the coin is sitting on top of the
base try to grab it it’s not there the trick is in the mirrors on the inside a
brilliant little design like a cylindrical Pepper’s Ghost of course
there are almost endless ways to design a system like this now let’s take a look
at luma graphic lenses these things are completely awesome
depending on the angle that you view the lens you can see a different image this
type of lens is an art form and here is cast a our augmented reality glasses
they use two projectors and reflect them off of a retro reflective surface back
to your eyes everyone sees a unique image
anyone can make a pyramid hologram at home here I filmed a holographic moon
myself using a simple pyramid made for my transparent sheets for those people
who theorized that there a dome or firmament above us whether it
is made of ice or any other material that could definitely reflect light back
to the observer at various angles in addition to reflected light there is
projected light light from a projector expands as it moves away from you
however this also depends on the shape of the lens a flat light source like a
television screen would cause almost no increase in size as you move away from
it perhaps this is why the Moon and Sun have a slightly round appearance it
would also be another possibility to explain why the Sun does not shrink as
much as people anticipate also the further you are from the Sun or moon the
sharper the angle is to them and the greater the refraction also the more
miles the light must travel through the thermosphere to reach you and of the
more profound a small change in angle will be have you ever seen a moon set
have you noticed that it almost always seems to move faster in the sky the last
few moments as it descends the Sun seems to do the same thing right before sunset
it quickly drops a few degrees Y finally on this subject we can see hundreds of
examples of sundogs double Suns double moons and other things like this in the
sky it’s hard to make sense of these sightings and decide which ones are
valid however multiple Suns is a pretty common occurrence also interesting as
the alleged sighting of Rahu which is a semi translucent disc said to be the
cause of eclipses something similar to this could cause the moon’s phases or
considering that the Sun and Moon are constantly refracted this introduces a
wide new range of possibilities for the moon’s phases so let’s check out a
website called Sun calc org many flat earthers come to this site to attempt to
measure the sun’s height in the sky by triangulating elevation angles first of
all how does son kal-el evasion angles it doesn’t they guess them based on what
they believe the curvature of the earth to be although the angles have just been
completely disproven let’s make some observations if we use this site we can
find out that the Sun set almost always happens at ten thousand kilometers away
from the Sun or six thousand two hundred miles this means roughly the elevation
angles the site gives you will go down 9 degrees for every thousand kilometers
from 90 degrees dead center you can test this yourself there will be
some variations let me show you how to calculate the sun’s height in the sky
it’s easy when you know how I chose a city that was on the equator with a
90-degree elevation angle to the Sun and at sea level to make this very easy then
I chose multiple cities at random I will link my choices and results in the
description now we measure the distance of our cities by using the longitude and
latitude I’m going to use Google Maps however before I proceed there’s one
thing you must know and never forget Google thinks the earth is round so that
will cause distances of cities especially at long distances to be wrong
Google also uses the Mercator map one of the most blatantly inaccurate Maps ever
drawn Greenland on that map appears 13 times larger than its square mileage the
equators move downwards and the northern hemisphere is drawn almost twice as
large as its actual size countries that are anywhere from ten to fifty percent
of the size of other countries are drawn much larger the excuse given was it’s
hard to turn a ball into a flat map but that doesn’t explain why the northern
hemisphere was so exaggerated nor does it explain why Mercator chose to shrink
some countries while he greatly exaggerated the size of his European
employers at a very minimum the map is a racialist there is other map options too
Google could be using the Peters projection which is far more accurate
because at least Peters tried to draw the countries more true to their size
why in 2016 does Google still use this ridiculous map so is there a map that
accurately shows the size of countries of course there is this map is called
the azimuth equidistant map this map projects the countries on a circle each
one being the correct distance in relation to the center point the North
Pole the Egyptians use this map for stellar maps it matched the Stars they
will try and tell you that the southern hemisphere is exaggerated but is this
true no if you look at the size of Africa and South America they seem to be
almost precisely drawn the same size as their square footage also if it is
inaccurate then why do many modern star chart planisphere is use the polar
azimuthal equidistant projection in the case of radio this projection allows for
directional antenna aiming especially in the case of HF communications so
answer here is it is used because it is the most accurate map we have this is
why it is the UN flag logo and this is why flat-earthers use it round earthers
will argue that Australia is not in the right position but it is this is why you
can calculate sunsets 10,000 kilometers away from Australia and this is why the
Sun almost never appears south of Australia and why the azimuthal
equidistant map works for all telecommunications and projections
another point here is you get 24-hour sunlight near the North Pole during the
Arctic summer but you never get this in the South Pole
you can prove this on Sun calc which will never show the Sun to be south of
the tips of South America and Australia also there is one piece of footage that
was claimed to be oven Antarctic summer but that was debunked as fake as for
flights in the southern hemisphere such as Qantas chilly to Sydney you can see a
video of that flight and the video shows it traveling over ice it also shows the
passenger speaking in Spanish very frustrated that the GPS disappeared and
stopped moving in the Pacific Ocean while the GPS probably disappeared
because they didn’t want to show them where they were actually going if you
had West on a globe straight from Chile to Sydney you would never detour south
so the only way you would see ice is if you traveled over the North Pole or near
by it which is exactly what they did there is almost no direct flights in the
southern hemisphere the ones that claim it are constantly delayed or you have to
phone in where they end up giving you a different flight with stop or they’re
extremely expensive and the sites usually list clearly incorrect flight
times and hours and other confusing data on sites the reality is is that there’s
almost no direct flights and the ones that do exist could probably fly a
little bit faster without the passengers knowing there is already many videos on
this subject all flights mapped on the azimuthal equidistant map are almost
always straight lines because why would the pilot waste gas on a round earth
Mercator map impossible nonsensical detours are made ok so when we have our
distance we can then find the height of the Sun so far a few assumptions have
been made first that the distance we have is 100% accurate and second that
the elevation angle given by Sun calc matches the actual elevation angle at
the day and time you are trying to measure it for
both cities the first city must be 90 degrees below and the second city must
be the exact distance and you need to know its elevation angle for now let’s
just use Sun calcs numbers so you can see how it’s done after all this is only
to show you how to triangulate we now have all the variables required to
calculate height we then go to a 90 degree triangle calculator we enter the
distance to the city below the Sun and we enter the angle of elevation also
called the altitude and voila we get the height of our Sun now this same method
was used by the infamous Eratosthenes thousands of years ago using stick and
shadow it by the way isn’t it ironic that round earth believers will mock
flat earthers saying we believe in old theories yet they constantly use a guy
who’s been dead for 2,000 years as their go-to argument for sun angles even when
for those two 2000 years the leading theory was flat earth round earth was
only popular in european ruled countries and even then it was unproven and
constantly debated only when there was the advent of radio and television and
then NASA went to the moon did the world change its mind anyways Eratosthenes
used to stick and shadow method for measuring the height of the Sun however
he was unable to determine the height so he assumed we were on a curve you see if
the earth is curved you only need to know the angle of elevation and not the
sun’s distance very convenient we don’t have to care anymore you see in a curved
model the Sun can be anywhere along the same tangent as long as the diameter of
the Sun matches our perspective because in this model the Sun is not moving
relative to the earth even though they say it zips along the universe at a
zillion miles per hour however the Prophet avoids solving it
creates hundreds more for example if you try to calculate the sun’s distance
using known cities with the assumption of a curve you get some pretty
ridiculous results ranging from 1 million to a hundred million miles
sometimes the stick will be pointing away from the Sun and you won’t be able
to calculate it properly imagine trying to shoot a pool ball into a hole that’s
a hundred million miles away could you do it you can see how many times the
Suns estimate a distance has changed for the round earth model over the years
with margins of error of a hundredfold this obviously is not the scientific
method you have literally zero margin error and absolutely does not match what
we measure with stick and shadow when we are strictly trying to know the sun’s
height so why would people who believe in around earth force flat earthers to
follow strict measurements that they themselves don’t follow
how can a citizen determine the sun’s distance on around earth
they can’t only Space Agency’s claim to do this and here’s why you see
calculations of the Sun distance have been made by looking at the alleged
parallax of Venus over the Sun they don’t share the intimate details of this
test and I doubt it could produce the same results twice this number cannot be
calculated without assuming the distance trajectory and speed of Venus assumption
built on top of another assumption they say they determine Venus is distance by
transferring radar signals to other planets something based falsely on the
speed of light which we will discuss later and of course results that can
only be confirmed or denied by government space agencies because you
know you and I aren’t going to be able to fly to Venus anytime soon the Flat
Earth model does not believe that planets are Terra Firma
they are just lights which makes sense because they appear to emit light the
Flat Earth doesn’t make many assumptions instead they constantly research and
they perform scientific experiments that anyone can perform although in this
video we have speculated on different theories for the moon and chemical
makeup the atmosphere however this is done to hopefully inspire more research
into the subject the stars and heavens remain mysterious until we know
otherwise this follows the scientific method until the problem is solved we
remain agnostic however there is a lot of videos on the subject of CGI and how
preposterous NASA’s images of the planets are it’s like they don’t even
try ok so the results of my experiment we’re as follows as you can see the Sun
appears lower the further away it is from the centre point why is that
because they’re assuming a curve so that would cause the predicted elevation
angle to not have our distance in a straight line causing a steeper angle up
until sunset using some calc the closer you are to the Sun higher the result
keep this in mind because the higher the Sun the higher the elevation angle needs
to be when the Sun sets ten thousand kilometers away this means the more air
that it needs to block the Sun or the lower it must appear due to converging
lines of perspective and of course refraction also I’ve noticed that a lot
of people do the stick and shadow experiment and relatively nearby cities
and I’ve noticed that there isn’t really that many stick and shadow experiments
done near sunset anyways we are not going to use Sun calc we are going to
use real measurements from real people and guess what it’s extremely hard to
find anyone on YouTube who filmed themselves using the stick and shadow
method and gave their time and GPS location but I did find one video from
Poland made in 2013 let’s take a look at their results here is the link of Sun
calc for you to calculate the angles from the results of the Poland
experiment now at this location Sun calc says the elevation angle is 45 point
seven three degrees Sun calc is usually set for a universal time and they might
subtract or add hours depending on your IP address in our case it was UTC minus
seven which is three a.m. UTC which is ten minus seven which is exactly 12 p.m.
and the time they listed in the video the Polish kids measured forty-three
degrees that’s off by almost three degrees but of course these angles will
never be accurate because of refraction so if the earth is round then why did
the results of these kids not match Sun Cox predictions if we were to
triangulate that shadow to calculate the Sun based on a curve we would never make
it to our 93 million miles Sun but in a flat earth it’s okay because the Sun is
close and we care about knowing its nature and distance so now I’m going to
choose a city on the equator I chose this location okay so that’s apparently
four thousand eight hundred and eighty kilometers away from our Polish kids
this makes the Sun roughly two thousand eight hundred and thirty miles high
great so now we know why flat earthers thought the Sun was anywhere from one to
four thousand miles high so let’s now find out the angle at which the Sun
should set remember four thousand eight hundred and eighty kilometers is
extremely far that affects our results too
so let’s go back to our triangle calculator and plug in these numbers we
assume the Sun will set at about 6,200 miles away or 10,000 kilometers now we
get 24 point five degrees for the Sun set for the time being let’s
ignore refraction because now I want to talk a little bit more about air density
if we use our triangle calculator we can start to find out how far and high our
wall of air needs to be to block the Sun at this extremely inaccurate angle this
is being done just to prove a point at 50 miles away with 20 miles of
atmosphere there is 54 miles on the hypotenuse of lower atmosphere blocking
the Sun that’s 54 miles of dense atmosphere clouds water and other things
constantly refracting the light that’s at an elevation of 21 point eight
degrees however it’s below our target so why stop there
that must fear extends 300 miles upwards at least according to the Internet first
let’s show some other possibilities if we assume that after 80 miles away and
50 miles high of atmosphere we get 32 degrees which is far beyond our target we can obviously play with these numbers
to look at different angles and distances we can even calculate a twenty
four point five degree angle to six thousand two hundred miles and determine
how much air is included on the hypotenuse with each mile of elevation
now why was a 50 mile high wall given as an example well because the atmosphere
doesn’t stop at twenty miles that’s why and beyond fifty miles is the
thermosphere and they consider that outer space in fact even at fifty miles
you can still have clouds called noctilucent clouds
if you check online you can even see different air density estimates for
different elevations but who actually goes higher than 20 miles to measure
those numbers anyway oh yeah that’s right government space agencies so we’re
back to trusting them again but wait if air pressure is so low then how the hell
do we get clouds above 50 miles well they say those are rare but here’s
the thing those clouds can’t form without some sort of density and
molecules in order to form them so just because there isn’t clouds doesn’t mean
there isn’t molecules that’s why the sky lights up so bright for the Sun and
changes colors when the Earth’s magnetic field causes the Aurora and ionizes
different chemicals in the air which causes all kinds of beautiful colors and
even where it appears dark there is still very much something there the two
most buoyant chemicals on the periodic table also happened to be ordered first
our old friends helium and hydrogen the world record for altitude in a balloon
was 32 miles that should tell you something that the air in the balloon
was not enough to blow up the container then it popped of course so ok
apparently there is enough hydrogen up there to form clouds remember things
that are less buoyant are not necessarily less refractive everything
depends on the element considering that on a clear day we can see 50 miles ahead
but then we can’t see through the clouds right above us that means that the
high-altitude air can also be effective in blocking the Sun it depends entirely
on the elements there such as the makeup of a cloud considering they say that
mysterious 300 miles up and at only 30 degrees you have to cross 600 miles of
molecules on the hypotenuse look at this company Air Swimmers for example they
make these balloons that look like flying fish and they just hover in the
sky how do they do it well you find the perfect buoyant balance to
fish by adding and removing putty and then you can get it to suspend in midair
like a cloud and then you propel it with its fin any balloon can be made to hover
midair if the correct balance is found this is most likely one method on how
airships can find balance for example if you had an air intake you could probably
find the perfect balance to keep the balloons stable in the sky I should also
mention that heat also plays a role and causes air to expand changing the volume
and thus heat is another method to increase elevation it may also explain
why parts of the thermosphere is less dense to begin with because it’s hot
near the Sun and when things cool they contract so consider all of this there
are even more elements at play when we are seeing the sunset
first there is perspective can we see the Sun and second there is whether or
not the light is lighting us the two are not related
for example even when the Sun is blocked by the clouds it still lights us the
reverse is also possible and I will give you an example let’s take the example of
the moon the light is extremely powerful but it doesn’t light up the whole
atmosphere the moon’s light doesn’t appear to have the same qualities that
the sun’s does however it’s still visible another example a small light in
your house only illuminates locally in a corner but it won’t light the whole room
in fact the rest of the room might appear dark lastly if we go into the
depths of the ocean the light is always blocked by something it never travels
far at the ocean depths light won’t even go more than a few feet this is
important because flat earthers have said diverging perspective lines can
cause the Sun not to be seen however they probably didn’t consider
that the light could illuminate things near you however when you add refraction
then the light might not reach you this is why air density is important okay but
let’s not our large in lines let’s try to explain perspective with converging
lines now if the Sun is at a higher angle why would it appear on the horizon
well first of all the horizon we see is not the true horizon it must be a little
higher as proved in the air density video second as things move to the
horizon they appear lower and the altitude of things make them appear
angled this is why it’s so extremely hard to determine how far stars are to
us there lights in the sky with no apparent
parallax without parallax the only way to know a star’s position is
triangulation but for that we need to know the angles to the Stars but you
can’t know the angle of something based on its visual appearance alone you can
see where it starts getting difficult our eyes triangulate things but the
further something is the harder it is to determine its distance because of
perspective this is also true for multiple cameras and 3d triangulation of
points it’s a common problem in computer science
that’s why 3d reconstruction is so much easier with parallax and distortion of
known patterns like an infrared projector on a Kinect camera or by using
multiple photos if you enjoy the subject of perspective and higher-level math
then I’m going to recommend you watch videos about projective geometry by
Norman wild Berger who gives amazing PhD level lectures on the subject this
subject used to be taught in all schools before the 20th century but to stop
teaching it for some reason something that Norman laments he seems to think
our math has actually gotten less rigorous perhaps that’s why there was so
many good artists in the Renaissance period so let’s take a look at this
video by phuket world the video is actually pretty brilliant
he shows not only the size of things getting smaller as they approach the
horizon but how they also seem to be affected by the angle of approach in
this example the vehicles converge to the center point of his measurement
despite going straight they all seem to converge to the center at 23.5 degrees
this is a funny coincidence that his observation matched the round earth
proposed axial tilt what he also shows is that over and over again things dip
below the cameras perspective despite being on a flat road mostly because
perspective and extremely small bumps in the road also our eyes lens is curved
and so is the lens of the camera and this is something that I don’t really
see discussed often now we already know that wide-angle lenses causes things
that are far away to curve this is why fisheye lenses are totally ridiculous
choices for filming the horizon but at what point does the lens in our eye
affect the angle of elevation and at what point does it cause things on the
horizon to converge after all the further away something is the more
likely it is to be affected by the curvature of our lens you can try a
pinhole but the pinhole camera model does not
include for example geometric distortions or blurring of unfocus
objects caused by finite sized apertures it also does not take into account that
most practical cameras have only discrete image coordinates its validity
depends on the quality of the camera and in general decreases from the center of
the image to the edge of the lens and distortion will increase so how can we
know with 100% certainty that our visual angle to the Sun is not affected by any
of these things and can we know that light from the Sun can reach beyond
6,000 miles away especially when light doesn’t travel more than a few feet in
the depths of the oceans after all when an eclipse happens it gets dark but we
can still see the Sun so what gets illuminated and what can be seen are
separate issues completely if the vanishing point is slightly angled and
the objects that approach the horizon appear lower is also unclear that you
would be able to visually prove that the Sun cannot be flush with the horizon or
diverged below it due to optics it’s fair to say it never sets at 0 degrees
anyway so what does this mean well if the Sun turns out to be a thousand miles
high or less then we only need to account for a 9 degree or less elevation
angle at sunset this is pretty ideal the Sun may even be less than 500 miles high
when you start to seriously study chemistry our atmosphere
electromagnetism refraction and optics an unlimited amount of doors will open
for you so the different ideas work together
perfectly and you can see how important it will be for people to continue
research and then they start to say things about the thermosphere like that
it reaches 2700 degrees but then they make excuses as to why that won’t melt
the ISS Brian Mullen had a very good video on the subject if they claim to
not be melted at that height then how did they measure the temperature to
begin with and whatever is making the particles hotter shouldn’t that also be
heating the ship one possible explanation for the temperature increase
in space is simple they’re close to the Sun we might see a go from extreme heat
to extreme cold all kinds of elements could be generated up there may be
highly refractive elements further layering our atmosphere after all if the
earth is flat why should we assume the Sun and Moon or
flying through a vacuum especially if we know that NASA is feeding everyone false
information it’s much more believable that the Sun and Moon are something so
unbelievably awesome that it would humble anime is all of us also light
changes speed and water and gas this is very important and when you realize this
you will be amazed at how much modern religious scientism falls apart light
can slow down anywhere from 3/4 to 1/3 of its speed through water and glass and
using a crystal you can even trap light by use of a bose-einstein condensate
Danish physicist Lynnae Vestergaard how at Harvard
University succeeded in slowing a beam of light to about 17 meters per second
okay so why does this matter well there are many things you can do with light
you can refract it changing its direction you can diffract it you can
separate the waves and sometimes isolate color frequencies like Royal Raymond
rife did to analyze bacteria without harming it with the world’s most
powerful cellular microscope that he made or you can reflect it so this can
be an important problem because modern scientists based all of their
measurements on see the speed of light which they calculate an air but remember
air is filled with at least 30 percent humidity and tons of other chemicals
that refract light it’s not even close to being transparent there is so much
air pressure that it can cause planes to rip apart if they fly too fast at low
altitude they never measure this speed on earth in a vacuum chamber their
official number for C is based on experiments done in lower atmosphere
which we can prove because people actually measure this and post those
videos to YouTube they might use an oscilloscope in a mirror for example
let’s also consider the margin of error in their measurements and in their
equipment now if you are not measuring see in a vacuum then how can you know
it’s true speed it clearly moves slower and air so the speed of light must be
wrong but how much is debatable however if you suck the air out of a train it
will crush like a tin can sending lasers from earth to be
refracted back won’t work either because it still needs to travel through the
atmosphere so who can measure light in a vacuum it’s possible that it’s almost
infinitely faster so why does this matter because it debunks the speed of
light and brings relativity into serious question but don’t take my word for
let’s look at this video by Norman wild burger again he does an absolutely
brilliant job showing you mathematically why GPS would not possibly work without
relativity the math is absolutely beautiful he brings up the Mickelson
Morley experiment which proves the earth wasn’t spinning because no matter what
direction you measure light the result is the same even in the direction of the
alleged spin the globe earth was basically screwed by the experiment
Norman starts talking about relativity in GPS at around 20 minutes so the
problem with satellites is they have to use atomic clocks and measure time
extremely accurately they say many satellites are 23,000 miles away for
example or even more in some cases so right off the bat you know that anybody
who thinks they have seen one has obviously had a confuse of the weather
balloon or something else nobody is going to be seeing anything 23,000 miles
away second the satellite somehow had to get past the blazing hot thermosphere
and third why the hell would anyone send satellites 23,000 miles away when they
can just use weather balloons or sky wave or fiber-optic cables or
ground-based towers which is exactly what they do and of course we have no
videos of the earth spinning and no photos that aren’t CGI composites
if those satellites were real there would be thousands of videos of the
earth spinning and thousands of photos well one thing that is certain is light
can move longer distances vertically because there are less obstructions and
it’s moving through a less dense medium technologies such as sky wave for
example has been around for a very long time and it functions by reflecting
waves off of the ionosphere a similar effect can be achieved with balloons
sending signals from one to another now Norman is a genius mathematician and he
explains that the results of GPS and its ability to triangulate would be off by
milliseconds then he uses relativity in his math to fix the problem so he’s
forced to use relativity here relativity says that time slows down the faster you
approach the speed of light but only for you the time traveler so because the
mickelson Morley experiment didn’t fit the globe model and because they’re fake
satellites would have latency they decided that everything travels through
time first of all Norman makes some
assumptions first he assumes that the speed of light is correct but we already
know that light was measured in the atmosphere and not a vacuum so it can’t
be perfectly accurate so his first assumption is based on an
incorrect number next he assumes the government is telling the truth and that
there are satellites 23,000 miles away now you tell me what is more logical
is it more logical that light travels through time or that the speed of light
was wrong is it more logical that light travels through time or the government
lied about satellites does light travel through time or does the earth simply
not spin does light travel through time or our satellites actually just balloons
and sky wave and ground-based technology Tesla was one of the greatest minds in
history he discovered alternating current it says he discovered the radio
before Marconi he invented more things than almost anybody of his time he was
literally the father of all of our modern technology and he didn’t believe
in relativity he also did not believe in the atom molecule and he believed that
electrons were physically impossible look at some of these quotes by Tesla he
was obviously a huge fan of the geocentric model Tesla believed in the
scientific method he did not agree with the idea that you make up a theory to
explain a phenomenon that is the reverse of the scientific method it borders on
religious dogma Tesla would lament that science moved away from experimentation
and into math and conjecture but Einstein didn’t care he’s famous for
saying if the theory does not fit the facts change the facts in other words
what he’s basically saying is I’m right and if you don’t agree I change the laws
of your reality we are men of action lies do not become us well-spoken sir relativity is just as nonsensical as his
idea of gravity bending space they always show you space bending on one
plane but if gravity bent space it have to bend it in all three dimensions on
all planes simultaneously which is basically the same as saying nothing and
they made Einstein the man of the century instead of Nikola Tesla or
Mahatma Gandhi or somebody else where Tesla gave us the modern world
Einstein gave us mathematical excuses also if the speed of light is wrong then
light years are wrong and so is every calculation that space agencies do
stellar parallax was in constant dispute in the early 1900s if you can’t
accurately determine the exact angle of refracted light then why on earth would
you think you can determine the parallax of a star well there is no stellar
parallax and it is much more logical to assume the stars go around us otherwise
the stars would move in synchronicity in for scientists to assume the galaxy is
flat scientists also assume that the solar system is flat but how can the
solar system or galaxy be flat that is a statistical impossibility with no regard
for three dimensions believing this is almost a religious belief why do people
agree with this so who’s the bigger flat earther us or them I have an idea don’t
assume the galaxy that’s alleged zillions of stars is on a flat plane and
instead simply assume the earth is flat exactly as it appears they never even
give a satisfactory reason as to how they think the solar system became flat
in three dimensions I doubt you will even find a working computer model for
that theory although I’m sure somebody somewhere has made us a pretty animation
most modern theories are hardly ever questioned if the subject of stars
interests you I highly recommend you investigate this further so what about a
theater light for measuring angles well surveyors use them all the time
they are however not very useful for extremely long distances not to mention
as distances increase so does your margin of error so another question
about the Sun is if you use the solar filter then the Sun will not shrink in
diameter well first of all there is very little footage if any of the Sun for 24
hours through her solar filter sunrise to sunset also most of the footage zooms
in on the Sun this makes a continuous shot
harder however thanks again to fukken world who shot the Sun through a solar
filter and he posted his results and we do see a diameter change however round
earth believers give us their videos showing the size not changing however
most of these videos are very short and thus inconclusive so which one is it I
would like to see the Flat Earth researchers perform a 24 hour time lapse
with a solar filter and no zooming so the shot is continuous also the
atmosphere refracts the Sun and it increases the diameter of it as it
passes through air the further the Sun the more air it will pass through and
the more it won’t shrink as much as we expect it to this was explained in my
first video also it depends completely on the light source and the lens of the
light source for example when you use a projector the image actually gets bigger
as you get further away from the projection by the way in my first video
a few people wanted to know how I can prove that we were walking backwards
well you see the diameter of the light shrink and in one shot you can see the
light overhead the reason it descends so fast is because we sped up the footage
300% in fact you can tell a lot of the clips that we use for sped up to fit the
video within the audio and get it within 10 minutes we walk backwards from the
table in the room to the end which is about 15 feet away plus you can do it
yourself do it with two cameras if you like do it with the lights on even the
results will be the same in order to set it up just use transparent sheets cut
them into different heights and stack them on top of each other the more
sheets for each layer of atmosphere the denser that layer of air you can also
experiment with different gels and simulate different elements some people
ask why does the Sun approach left to right or right to left in different
hemispheres well obviously that depends entirely on which way you are facing and
if you are north or south of the Sun I’ve noticed the people use these videos
where they show a stick and shadow going around a little piece of paper with
north marked on it but this is clearly wrong because if you are south of the
Equator the Sun will be approaching from the east which will be on your
right-hand side if you’re facing north and it will cast a southerly shadow on
the stick as it moves from right to left the shadow will appear to move
counterclockwise if you perform the same stick and shadow experiment north of the
Sun the shadow will move in the other direction
of course the Sun can’t change from clockwise to counterclockwise the sun’s
path at the equator is never straight up and down on a flat earth at 90 degrees
under the Sun the Sun should always swing in slightly northernly also the
Equator is not possible in a round earth model the equators position in both
models depends entirely on the season in a flat earth the Sun traces different
circles spiraling outwards for the seasons and around Earth
you can’t have an equator because axial tilt this causes the earth to be on one
side of the Sun six months later the side of the earth that was tilted
towards is now tilted aways that’s their explanation for seasons but it doesn’t
actually make any sense look what would happen to the South Pole if the South
Pole was ever exposed to the Sun like that the temperature would rise
dramatically but if you compare north and south pole temperatures the South
Pole is always a lot colder so which model better explain seasons
easy the Flat Earth model the Flat Earth model has the South Pole along a much
larger line and further from the Sun Also equatorial countries keep a very
consistent temperature year-round and northern cities got unbelievably hot
like Vegas and making colleges despite being slightly above the equator this is
because in the Flat Earth model the Sun spirals inwards and outwards depending
on the season in the Flat Earth model the Sun spirals would average in the
center of the equatorial line giving a pretty consistent temperature but it
would move slightly above and below it to account for seasons and would still
be distant enough to set from everything we can also measure 10,000 kilometers
from every single point from where it says both models explain varying
Daylight Time but the round earth suffers from the fact that the earth is
on the other side six months later forcing them to prove the impossible
why isn’t day and night not flipped six months later so the Flat Earth is a lot
more modest in daylight times if the Sun is further south its circuits near the
southern hemisphere countries for much longer
also the sun’s speed in the Flat Earth increases during that time then it
spirals inwards into a smaller circle some people have theorized about a dome
and although that’s a very interesting idea it’s a little bit beyond the scope
of this video there are many theories out there some think there is more land
some think there is a dome was absolutely certain is we are not on a
spinning ball also core post raises strong evidence that the Sun is a
lot closer a great video by P brain was done on the subject where he shows how
the light angles would come in now you might say that this is due to
perspective but the problem is corpuscular rays are pretty localized
there are also hot spots from the Sun and the angles of corpuscular rays are
extremely sharp the Sun appears closer because it is finally we come to one of
my favorite subjects and that is the subject of fata morgana fata morgana is
a complex form of superior mirages that is seen in the narrow band right above
the horizon this optical phenomenon actually dramatically favors the Flat
Earth in my previous video I explained how the water line can appear slightly
higher due to the tremendous amount of water particles near the water’s surface
which can form an inferior and superior Mirage fata morgana is usually layered
and usually inverted or both inverted and straight well when you zoom in on
the horizon you are only looking at this extremely thin line of the horizon it
becomes pretty self-evident that after 40 miles strange things can start to
happen with compounded air what do you notice about every Mirage that you see
well first of all they’re completely awesome they’re also pretty common over
water and over the hot desert or in extremely cold climates this Mirage here
is awesome look at how it looks like a flying ice wall one thing that most
mirages have in common is they are wavy with fractals and sometimes they look
ghostly looking compared to the time-lapse of the Chicago skyline there
is absolutely no way this is a mirage it looks nothing like the images you just
saw the entire city is intact and there’s no wavy lines or inversion
layers also things that you can see within 10 miles away at sea level like
boats islands and other shorelines and so forth should be more than six stories
below your line of sight these are daily occurrences go to the
beach and prove it to yourself and remember it squares with each mile on
the curve so each mile becomes more and more impossible to explain on a ball and
easier to explain on a flat plane we can even see some things up to a hundred
miles away on a day with good clarity so we can obviously tell the difference
between what is and what is not a mirage look at this crazy Mirage over the
desert road it looks like the road is a pool of water and the car drives into it
and almost gets devoured by the light now an inferior Mirage usually causes
the illusion to appear below and the superior Mirage usually causes the
illusion to appear above the superior Mirage is usually considered a little
more stable because cold air stays below on the horizon line however any air
current or heat on the water from the Sun will cause the heat to mix with it
and that’s why they’re extremely rare flat earthers avoid the subjects of
Mirage and refraction but this should be their favorite subject it usually works
in their favor superior mirages are more common in northern climates over ice
because there the air is cold enough to make the effect more probable if
inferior mirages and fata morgana are more common and we can prove that the
majority of mirages are actually unstable this type of Mirage is
commonplace in the desert and over lakes inferior mirages are not stable they
will constantly shift and change forms we have been told that mirages are more
common near the horizon line so if people are saying that the Chicago
skyline is a mirage then they must give examples of inverted cities and prove
that this is a common and everyday occurrence also because air density
forms a gradient it’s unclear that a superior Mirage would be able to happen
to an entire city over a lake and also you can see the Chicago skyline any day
you desire the visibility in the time lapse of the skyline is obviously due to
clarity when the clouds clear it’s visible also this is just one of tens of
thousands of examples any day you can visit the Bolivian salt flats or see
mountain ranges or cities for miles you can see other islands and boats on a
daily basis sofe inferior mirages are more common
would it not be more reasonable to assume that it has an effect on the
water line normally causing the water line to appear slightly higher and also
consider the effect that our atmosphere has on light when you study it you will
be amazed and your eyes will open and you will know the truth so hopefully
this video has been helpful I’m going to attach a frequently asked questions to
this so researchers can make their own videos based on what they have learned
here this video was meant to be a very high level analysis of the Sun angles
refractions optics and other things that have not been covered enough in the Flat
Earth movement it’s an extremely advanced course in optics and light we
have tried our best to avoid speculation and to explain light and as great a
depth as possible if there was any errors or omissions in this video please
consider the amount of content we’ve covered the amount of time it takes to
make a video like this and please be kind in the comments we realize there
will be a lot of discussion on this video and the subjects that it covers so
try to make logical and scientific arguments that can be reproduced at home
and avoid breaking any of the following logical fallacies you can pause here if
you need time to read them also you have permission to mirror this video you can
use it to make smaller videos or you can borrow ideas and content from it in fact
anybody that wants to make my FAQ into a video or a documentary they are
certainly welcome to all I ask is that you choose really good videos and
visuals and links to illustrate the points and remember to stay positive
don’t worry and be happy thanks and have a wonderful day you there goes the moon
now somebody explained to me what is going on how is the moon moving across
screen I’m not doing anything the buttons on play you can see the time and
the lower left little left-hand turn and they’re off
nope it stopped so maybe it’s gonna hang out there for a little bit because we
all know the moon moves so slowly around the Earth takes 20 oh wait a second the
moon’s moving holy smokes watch out it’s gonna hit us yeah that’s real so honestly I need one
of you NASA groupies to tell me what is going
on here please explain to me my my imbecilic mind is not capable of a
scientific thought I guess so you’ll need to come in and tell me what’s going
on because that makes no sense

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