Sesión 1: el vuelo de Superman
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Sesión 1: el vuelo de Superman

August 17, 2019

Good evening, my name is Robbie Barrera,
graduate in Physics and Mathematics, and professor And what we´re about to see is one
of various talks I have prepared for you About something I like to
call Optimistic Science Fiction Why did I name it
like this?, let me explain I don’t know if you’re familiar
with the term Scientific Dissemination… Scientific Dissemination? For example, do the names of Michio Kaku,
Neil deGrasse Tyson, or Carl Sagan ring a bell? What the Scienctific Disseminator does is
to try to show Science in a more popular fashion. Basically, to simplify the language and
make it more accessible, attractive and fun There are two types of
currents of Scientific Dissemination Which is what
I’m going to show now Well, you may
recognize a few things here When it comes to analyzing all the phenomena,
or at least the ones I’m going to show now There are two
types of thoughts Those who say “that’s not possible”, in fact
there are huge books published about the topic I don’t know how he’s called, the one
who wrote a book about Star Trek science. He’s a rather grey haired guy, well the
majority of us will become grey haired… However he write about how this and
that can’t be done because of x and y. In a way it’s
rather depressing …And here’s the rest Here I put many of the well known
people, and humbly, myself over here …Down here so as
to not to hog the light For example,
here’s Bill Nye… This one over here is Ernesto
Blanco, of whom I’ll talk about later This guy is Michio Kaku, the
one who proposed the String Theory This guy over here is also a rather
unknown character, Stephen Hawking… And so, without further ado I’d like to start
with the most basic when we look at a superhero Well the part about the cape
moving, it shouldn’t but you know… Yeah! Thanks for
breaking the fourth wall for us What we’re about to talk today,
and I insist, talk a lot, ask a lot I call it
“Superman’s Flight” However I’m going to talk about
all kinds of Flying Abilities in general Either by biology,
magic, or technology There’s an author that says that
magic is merely science which we… … don’t understand,
but we will, eventually I have different origins here, I
don’t know if you can recognize them all There’s examples of
tech all the way up to biology Some have wings, but
they don’t use them to fly And others fly because
they think happy thoughts A few also fly here in Chile…
but by other means I would like to first
point out a few things The ability to fly, well they
aren’t flying, they’re falling with style According to the Royal
Spanish Academy Dictionary It says that it’s to move
through the air, sustained by wings Or to elevate oneself through the air, and
move from one place to another through some device Or to elevate and move, maintaining
suspension in the air, but in movement But, Why do I want to point out these
differences? Because there’s another definition here Oh well, let’s first
explain a bit what this means… Planes and things in general,
don’t work because of magic They don’t fly
because of magic There’s four fundamental forces,
which are: the Lift, that makes you go up The Weight of the plane, the Impulse
that moves it forward, and Wind Resistance I believe that we all know
why airplane wings need that shape so as to make the air that
passes in the topside faster… because it’s faster in the topside,
pressure in this side is smaller… and the plane
is pushed upwards. I don’t know if you’ve
seen the wings in formula 1 cars? They’re upside down, because with
this principle the cars sticks to the ground If they didn’t have
those wings, the cars… In fact more than a few accidents
have happened because of this Then some who respect
this flight mechanics -Here we have the some
unknown guy, Tony Stark Over there we have The
Rocketeer, or Adam Strange These three characters, Why do I show
them? because they use a basic form of flight which is jet propulsion, which is
what planes have, and so do rockets… Rocketeer explains this phenomenon very well
with his helmet, the fin let’s him steer his flight Well, Batman approves too. He
also has his own methods for flying… But he flies with style, not
like that… that’s just bad taste… I don’t know if you
know this guy over here? Remember the movie
he’s from right? Megamind I want you to
watch this scene closely So that you can see clearly
if Metroman is flying or not He walks on water…
over water He thinks too highly of himself…
Good characterization from Brad Pitt He doesn’t sink but still touches the
water, if you can see he leaves trails behind Shortly someone kisses his
foot while he’s flying around This is the definition
I wanted to talk about When we talk about flying we have
a sort of clear idea of what that is But there’s another
concept which is levitation Which is to basically
stay lifted in air Without an apparent movement,
o without apparent propulsion There we see that
they’re doing it with magic Metroman
doesn’t work on magic But he has
a similar system There is no known physical
agent that can keep him in the air He’s just theree, as if he was hanging,
but there’s nothing to keep him there Thus what I want to try to
do is to join those two definitions I’m going to put
some examples of levitation On a biological level, of Superman,
waiting the whole day for someone who need him And he just waits
there, the whole day On a technological level, such as this
one, or the Independence Day ship up there Which stay above the building
without any apparent propulsion Or in a magical way… Now you can tell me that it can fly
because of the magic of love, or whatever… We’re going to bring this down to
earth a bit, what this magic of love means Are you following me with the
difference between flying and levitating? Is it different,
or the same? Because there in the aire, they’re
moving… come in, come in please There’s something with which I want
to bring the magic levitation down to earth Of the strange flight, which
is the law of action-reaction Also known as Newton’s
The Third Law of Movement Or as I like to call
it, the Chavo and Quico Law Remember when
Chavo hit Quico? Quico would say: “No, I hit
him with my nose in his fist”. Actually, according
to Physics, that is correct When you hit something,
in this case, his fat cheeks His face hits your
fist with the same strength You make an action,
and you create a reaction When a car
slams into a bike Both are hit
with the same force But since the bike has less mass, it
obviously recieve the most amount of damage In this case a fist and a
nose, the nose gets more damage Why is this law so important
when it comes to flying? Because, for you to be
able to fly one way or direction You need to muster enough
force in the other direction I like to call
it “Chuck Norris’ Law” In fact we all do this When we do push ups, we
actually push the earth down But obviously the differences
between mass make us go up When I push a wall, I’m going to
move back because the wall will not move Come in, come in If Superman… to make him fly,
he needs to generate force that way And its reaction
will push him upwards What is the problem
we’ll be resolving today Or at least, I
will humbly try to Here you can tell me “No
this is wrong” what do I know But do talk, that’s the idea, if not,
tell me so I can call the Nobel committee That force that’s
there, doesn’t show up There is no
rocket behind Superman In fact, Perr
White in the movie says: “What does he have?
A jetpack under his cape? And no, he does not In fact, if he did, because
Metroman flies in the same way If he had some
kind of propulsion… That girl who kissed Metroman’s foot, would’ve
been affected in some way by that propulsion And it didn’t have any effect,
I mean to her, it did affect the foot And back with Mr.
Ernesto Blanco He has a Youtube Channel Names “Superhéroes
de la Física”, I approve (tn:Physics Superheros) It’s more or less the
same we’ve talked about He introduces and idea about flight, that
I insist, I just humbly polished and refined Where the particles
named Neutrinos come into play I don’t know if you’re
familiar with this name? It’s not the name of some
Transformer or something like that Neutrinos are elemental
particles, a million times smaller Than the hidrogen atom, A million
times less mass than an electron It’s part of the fundamental
particles of the universe The Universe
is filled with them They are usually
created in stars, mainly Although in
Nuclear Centers too I recommend you to… I believe I have the
number somewhere around here so I don’t forget If you go out to the street, and put
your finger to the sun, and count to three In those three seconde, around 2
billion neutrinos just went right through it It’s a lot… it’s a two
a lot of zeros to the side Two billion
neutrinos okay… Do you feel anything in your
finger, aside from a bit of heat when…? Do you feel things
going through your finger? Nevertheless
they are there There exist giant centers in which
their only purpose is to find neutrinos The problem with neutrinos is that
they’re ghosts in sub-atomic physics Because they do not
interact with any kind of matter You can put an iron wall the
size and width of the solar system And the neutrino
will just right through it It won’t
stop in any moment It has mass, but doesn’t interact
with many of the elemental forces It works with gravity, with the weak
interaction force, which is at an atomic level But it has not electric charge,
so it’s rather hard to detect We know it’s there, however,
because it allows to complete equations You take a Neutron.
Remember what a Neutron is right? Not the
“Jimmy”, the particle A Neutron in a free state, will
decompose into other particles and energy If you take all that, and put it back together,
the sum will not give you everything it had And if you remember, mass
and energy cannot disappear This difference becomes a
constant, and it’s called a Neutrino Maintain this neutrino thing in your
head, it’s super important for what’s next Ernesto Blanco proposes that for
Superman to fly, he emits neutrino jets By throwing neutrino this
way, he can move the other way Without breaking
Newton’s Third Law The problem is that for something to
create neutrinos, it must be radioactive I put the
Radioactive Man there In fact, the Radioactive Man has
similar abilities to those of Superman In fact any generic super
hero has Superman’s abilities They fly, have superstrength,
invulnerability, beams through their eyes… I’d say this is a bad example,
but I thought it was funny to put it I said to myself: “Let’s fix
this, let’s make it really possible…” What’s interesting, and I also
invite you to open your minds to this… Is that you have to try to see
all the shades of color of knowledge Not only Physics
nor only Chemistry What I’m going to show you next is to
prepare you from where this idea sprung about Please, please…
To correct this problem To make Superman
not radioactive Well Discovery
Channel saved me I don’t know
if you recognize this It has three hearts,
uhmmm, changes color… It’s considered by many animalists… no,
no, what was the name of the animale scientists? A Zoologist! Thanks…
like an alien Because of the difference their genome has
from the rest of the animal kingdom, very different Someone knows how octupuses, or
squids, or cephalopods move through water? They use a type
of jet propulsion What do they do? The octopus takes water from its
surroundings with some pumps it has And throws it backwards What does this
allow him to do? Move forward Squids do it, octopuses,
I guess the kraken does too… This is the good thing about water,
it’s that it can get very big living there Imagine, he took water from its surroundings,
and *whish* water to the back, it goes forward Let’s apply this idea to the trillions of
neutrinos that are bombarding us right this moment In this very moment *whish* a
shower of neutrinos is coming down on us Kryptonian biology could absorb
neutrinos from its surroundings… Throw them back, and through this
create a reaction that moves them forward This would allow him to stay floating
somewhere and then move somwhere else And it could even explain, as
we’ll show later, his superstrength… This idea, which for
those of you who know me… For many years I hosted Comic Con,
and I had the chance to tell this theory to A comic artist for
Supermen, John Bogdanove Who is famous for the death
of Superman, or Zero Hour too I took this idea to him, it took me a while
to talk technical, but we made ourselves understood He found sense in the idea, and told
me it sounded logical, he even named it He called it “The Neutrino Drive”, I
said “Oh, well that sounds marketable, cool!” I told him, as a joke, “Well, if you ever
use the Neutrino Drive in a comic, tell me” He said “Well if I do, I’ll put
you in the credits” I said “Yeah!” It’d be cool
if it happened What was the point that he made
about this, everytime you see Superman fly He has a certain fluidity in the
air, as if he were moving through water Then it makes sense that he takes neutrinos
from the surroundings and throws them back Now I’m going to
mention his Super Strength I don’t know if you recognize Super
Boy? or his tactile telekinesis ability? I think it’s one the stupidest
ideas they’ve come up with With telekinesis the whole
idea is that it’s not through contact Superboy has the ability to take something,
and when he’s touchgin it to move it with his mind More or less
it’s like this Superman can perfectly, o rather
any kryptonian or anything similar Take “something” and control the
flow of neutrinos in that “something” In such a way that
he isn’t really lifting it It’s that he’s getting help from the
neutrinos in the surroundings to move it Come in, come in There’s a moment in the Fantastic Four where
they fight with someone who moves a whole building And well, with Reed Richard’s
limited mental capabilities… One of the greatest
intelectual geniuses ever invented He reasons that the guy’s
ability is “Tactile Telekinesis” “As long as he holds
the building we’re ok” Neutrinos allow us to make anything
fly, and for superstrength to be explained This is where I wanted to get to,
which is “levitation is the same as flying” But the impulse
is created by neutrinoss You said that neutrinos
don’t interact with matter Right, they don’t
smash into mass… Then, how can
they push something? Only by
conservation of momentum Basically, allow me… I believe I have one
here, not like I have some momentum stored somewhere In fact everyone has momentum…
No, I didn’t bring it… I was searching for my
Sharpie but they took away my board Basically you have…
imagine a cannon with a bullet It has what’s
called “movement quantity” If the cannon has wheels
and the cannon shoots one way The cannon will
move the other way If you add the
movement quantity of one side and the movement quantity of the
other side, they nullify each other Same thing happens here,
because neutrinos do have mass How do we
know they have mass? Because they
travel at near-lightspeed At least by
their own methods If something doesn’t travel at
lightspeed, it means it has at least some mass That is the
universe’s speed limit If you are asked at what speed was it
travelling, “lightspeed”, then it has no mass -Well I don’t think
you’ll ever travel that fast I take these
things equally The neutrino drive can be
the mechanization of a principle Be it by biology,
technology, or magic That carpet can perfectly be an artifact
so advance that we perceive it as magic In fact there’s theories that say that
Aladdin occurrs during a post-apocalypse world But we’re not
going to talk about that This or the genie lives outside of
time, for him to know the references he makes …Please – Then, why wouldn’t physics
work on Krypton?, taking into account… That’s where I
want to get to – …Ok Look here, for example, Do
you know of the Green Lanterns? Anybody who
has a ring, can fly Well, as long as
the ring chooses you This aura that the ring creates lets them
control the flow of neutrinos in their bodies The neutrino drive, as an artifact could
be channeled into a machine that would allow Interplanetary travel, or at
least make ships float above buildings Shooting jets or
channeling neutrinos downward To stay above said
buildings, without damaging them -Because if they did, if the ships in
Independece day had only rockets like Iron Man They would destroy all the buildings, which
would be rather convenient for them wouldn’t it? But no… That kid has a crown There are other concepts… something’s
up with the videos… doesn’t matter There’s a group of heroes who call
themselves the Legion of Superheroes They have a small
ring that lets them fly There are some that can fly by their own
means, and so they don’t need to use the ring I use Superboy
as an example again Superboy, in some moment he loses his
ability to fly, and says “well I have my ring” “…I’m going to fly by
using the ring’s capabilities” He explains that he feels a little
tingling sensation through the ring Because the ring allows him to channel
the neutrinos surrounding him, so he can fly Some can use
it to move objects… And then we could
mention the use of The Force Because we know that “E.T.” happens
in the same universe as “Star Wars” For those who remember, E.T.
recognizes the kid dressed up as Yoda And says
“Home, Home, Home” What was his race? The Grebleips?
it’s Spielberg backwards (tn: Asogians) In Episode 1, you can
see three “E.T.s” waving So before we finish up, I would
like to go back to what you said That’s related
to planet Krypton A short time ago,
well relatively short… The DC Universe and its comics,
rebooted itself with the “New 52” And among these “New 52” They included the character
of the scientist Neil deGrasse Tyson He was there as a
character and he helps Superman He helps him find
where Krypton was in Space Krypton if you’ll
remember, was around a red star If you search about the subject, this
red star’s name is Rao, and is a “Red Dwarf” Red Dwarf stars are less hot
and less bright than our yellow sun Therefore they
produce less neutrinos By producing less, it’s rather
probable that kryptonian biology… Wouldn’t allow them to channel
enough to demonstrate their abilities But in front of a Yellow Sun,
with more heat and brighter, like ours Although they did make that up later on,
in the beginning it was just gravity, whatever The great “but” of why they
had to make up the “sun thing”… Is that too many
people started asking… “Well if everyone was as powerful, why didnt
they just save themselves from the explosion?” And that’s where they had to say,
no, they were just normal over there… Ah!! that’s where… uhmm…
the uh… by… Darwin loses… Because there would never have…
never had… uh… …developed that ability…
hidden, evolutive – Hidden… Then the moment you
subject a Kryptonian being… Or Daxamite, which is another race
that works more or less the same way To the radiation or a bigger amount
of neutrinos with which to manipulate They can do
more impressive things In fact they can… it’s all look…
there’s a diagram I did it here but
it’s bit little for… Its called the
Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram Not Carl Russell Where it explains the
sizes, colors and temperature The sun is more
or less in the middle And the Red Dwarf, like Rao is over
here, where it’s a lot cooler a less bright This does give the
discovery a bit more sense Themo Lobos once said, in his last
interviews, I don’t know if you know him… Creativity is informed -You have to read a
lot, investigate a lot… For one to get new
ideas or new creations I’ve tried that for everything I’ve
shown, it has a strong base of information The amount of neutrinos that may have
passed by the second, the distance the we’re at The same principle
of action-reaction I then invito you to, if you
actually want to understand stuff… Or to simply ask yourself, if you’re with
friends or if you want to be the soul of the party That you have a
basis about the subject Thank you very much Optimistic Science Fiction – Professor Robbie Barrera – Literary
Café Parque Balmaceda – Ilustre Municipalidad de Providencia – Febrero 2017 Subtitled by Javier Díaz

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  1. Buen vídeo, me recordó al capítulo de la teoría del Big Bang en donde Sheldon discute con el resto que el vuelo de Superman se basa en su fuerza, o la radiación del sol jaja

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