Which way do the Jet Engines rotate? And WHY?!
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Which way do the Jet Engines rotate? And WHY?!

December 8, 2019

Hi Everybody! Very welcome to mentor and yet
another video podcast as always. I hope you’re doing absolutely fantastic. today on the video guys, we’re going to be talking about
the rotation of jet engines. Do they rotate the same direction? opposite directions? clockwise? counterclockwise? And what is a critical engine? Stay tuned. this video is brought to
in cooperation with brilliant.org. now, brilliant.org will make you smarter
in the areas that are really, really important for your flight training
or whatever occupation that you’re getting yourself into. So, if you want to get better at maths and
physics and you want to do so in a fun and intuitive way, well then, the five on the first of you
who uses this link here below, we’ll get 20% off the annual
fee are brilliant and that
will unlock all of their daily problems, weekly problems, all of their courses and everything
inside of both the APP and the website. So check it out. right guys. So today we’re going to
talk about jet engine rotations. and uh, in order to understand why the
jet engines work the way to do, And also propeller engines
work the way that they do, You do need to understand quite
a lot of physics and maths. That’s just the nature of things, because
we are going and talking about things like Torque for example, which is important on specifically
single engine propeller aircraft. We’re going to be talking to about
the theory of gyroscopic effect and a momentum arms. All of that has a clear kind
of connection to physics. The first thing we’re going to be
talking about is what we call “A Critical Engine”. right? Uh, When we’re talking about critical engines,
we talking about the propeller aircraft. and the reason that propeller
aircraft has a critical engine is something called a “P Effect”. Now I’m not going to go into that. You can go to a Wikipedia or whatever and
just type that in and see exactly what it is. But in short strokes, it means that the propellers or producing
different amount of forward thrust depending on if the propeller
is going up or down. Okay? A propeller does going down
actually produces little
bit more backward thrust and a propeller going up. And it has to do with the angle of attack
in the forward motion of the aircraft. But if it does that, if the propellers are producing
different amount of thrust, depending on where the propeller blade is, that would mean that the thrusts that
the engine is creating is not located exactly in the center, Like in the spinner of the aircraft
is actually located a little bit out. So on a propeller driven aircraft, uh, if the propellers are rotating in the
same direction, so they’re not rotating opposite to each other, they’re rotating the same direction. It means that one of the engines is
going to have a slightly smaller momentum arm. That means that the thrust that is being
produced is likely closer to the body of the aircraft on one side than
the other will be so far. Good. Now the critical engine is the engine
that if it fails produces the biggest jaw to the aircraft as the producers to more
problems for the pilot to control it if they’re on the run way, So the critical engine is going to be
the engine that has the smaller momentum arm. Because if that one fails, it means that the engine that has the
bigger momentum warm as in where the thrust of the engine is further away
from the center of the aircraft, that one is still going to be producing
thrust and that is going to have a much bigger kind of joy effect
on the right.. on the, on the aircraft. So what this means is depending
on how bad this effect is, the aircraft is going to have a higher
or a lower VMCG as in controllability. Speed on the wrong way. All right? This is important because the VMCG, um, that’s the speed when the, Eh rather has enough aerodynamic
effect to counteract any jaw. Not depending on which engine is failing, okay? This is something we do spend quite a
lot of time talking about during the ATPL theory. So if you have engines with propellers
rotating in the same direction, well then you will have a critical engine. If you have counter rotating propellers, well then you won’t have a critical
engine because then the manufacturers can choose to make the momentum
arms smaller on both sides. And that means that the effect of
the yaw is going to be smaller. Right? Cool! Now on jet engines, we don’t have critical engines, right? That’s because the fan blades, the multiple flan blades
inside of a jet engine. And the way that the, uh, uh, air that is being jostled outside of
the jet engine is being kind of stopped from rotating by the stator
blades inside of the engine. Because of that, you don’t really have a difference of
where the thrust is being produced is being produced in the center of the jet engine. Okay? So there’s no difference
between the jet engine hands. There is no critical engine. eh, but the next thing that we’ll
need to talk about is like I said, um, the effect of torque. now torque
is something that mainly affects, um, helicopters and the torque effect to
keep it simple has to do with Newton’s third law of motion that “Every action
has an equal and opposite reaction.”. So that means that a
propeller of a helicopter, for example, when that’s rotating, it’s trying to rotate the, the helicopter as well. So if it’s rotating in one direction, the helicopter will be affected to
rotate in the opposite direction. And that’s being counteracted with
that small propeller in the back of the helicopter. You have a similar effect on single engine
propeller aircraft as well, because it only has one propeller in the front. And when that’s rotating, it’s also actually trying to
rotate the aircraft behind it. Um, that doesn’t really affect the norm
the Cessnas and so on out there. But when you started to have really
large aircraft that did have an effect, so they started to produce counter
rotating m engines to the propeller and things like that. on jet engines. Once again, that is not a factor. Uh, there is no torque effect coming out of
a jet engine for the simple reason that the um, eh, the air that is being produced, it’s not rotating. It’s actually not. It’s being proposed straight
back without any rotation to it. Um, because the less the areas rotating, the more efficient the thrust
of vector is for jet engine. Okay? cool. Now the third thing that we need to, to talk about our gyroscopic effect. Now you might have seen videos
about the gyroscope effect. If you put a gyro inside of a suitcase, for example, and someone walking down the street
when they tried to move a corner, the suitcase, just want to go straight forward. Now, once again, you’ll have to pay attention on your
physics class when they’re talking about gyroscopic effect. Um, but simply spoken, it has to do with the fact that
once you start having a mass rotating, okay? when it’s rotate and the
quicker it’s rotating, the higher the gyroscopic effect is and
the more force you need to apply to it in order for it to change direction. Angular Direction. And if I think about it, the jet engines on larger
aircraft is exactly that. You have a huge fan in the front
who’s rotating at a fairly high speed, which would indicate that it would be
quite significant gyroscopic effect on that one. And the same goals for the rest of the, uh, of the jet engine as well, which is all rotating parts. So there is gyroscopic effects on, um, on jet aircraft. But the fact is that the
rotating part is in the, the fan, which is the heaviest rotating part on
the jet engine is so relatively small to the overall weight of the aircraft
that the gyroscopic effect is almost negligible. That together with the fact that the
aircraft is moving fairly quickly through the air and you have
both the wings and the, uh, stabilize from the fin counteracting
any effects that you know, and the gyroscopic effects there
might be, means that from a handling perspective, there’s almost nothing, right? We don’t feel it. We don’t notice it as
we’re handing the aircraft, but the gyroscopic effect is there. It is measurable. Okay? Now there are aircraft who are very
effected by gyroscopic effect and those aircraft tends to be the jet
aircraft that needs to hover. So if you look at, for example, the Harrier jump jet that want thus need
to take the gyroscopic effect into, um, into account. And that’s because it’s standing
completely still and it only has one jet engine. All right? I might have to actually, but anyway, when they… buddy, when they create the a harrier jump to it, they realize this quite quickly because
obviously if you were standing still then and you wanted to kind
of move forward with the, the Harrier would be the rolling. So what they did was they created a jet
engine where the high speed spool and the low speed spool and
his side of the engine, we’re were rotating in
different directions. By doing that, they effectively eliminated the, um, uh, the gyroscopic effect and
they could control it. If they wouldn’t have done that, it would’ve been almost
impossible to hover it. Okay? So that brings us to the
conclusion of this video. As in, do jet engines operate, rotate the same direction
or opposite direction? What do you think? Yes, they operate in the same direction and
there is a very good reason for that. And as always, when we’re dealing with airlines, what is the reason for that economy? Of course money, because there’s no real
difference in handling. Um, effects as I’ve just talked about, okay? It doesn’t really matter if they were
operating a rotating opposite or the same, but there’s a huge deal when it
comes to spares and engine costs. If you would need to have
counter rotating jet engines, they will effectively mean that
you need to have two sets of spare, two different types of
engine for the entire fleet. Okay? If you have engines rotating the same way, they are essentially the same engines
and if you need to replace them, you can just put a right engine
on the left side, or the left engine on the right
side it doesn’t really matter. And the components and all the fittings
and everything are exactly identical. Now the jet engines are the most
expensive part of the aircraft, so the less spares you
need to keep for them, the less money you need for paid for it, the cheaper it is for the airlines. And the second most important thing after
safety for an airline is always going to be economy. And that’s why you will see the
jet engines rotate the same way, both sides of any given airliner. Now, whether it’s operating counterclockwise
like it is on the Boeing seven three seven for example, or clockwise on the trend, 1000 engines in the Boeing 787, that doesn’t matter, all right. It has no effect at all
which way they’re rotating, but the fact that they’re rotating the
same thing way on both sides of the aircraft, That is important. right guys, So as you can see, understanding the basic and quite
advanced concept of physics, like you know, gyroscopic effect, momentum arms, things like that, there’s something that
you really need to do, all right? you’re going to encounter a during your
ATPL theory and in most cases if you’re going for an engineering
degree or anything like that, you will also come across it. Now, this is why I am so happy and so proud
to have brilliant.org as a sponsors of this episode. brilliant.org is a website that will give
you all of the tools you need in order to understand these concepts. And they will do so in a
really intuitive and fun way. They will use graphics, they will
use animations and they would use, you know, schematics in order to show you how
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instead of checking your Facebook status, you can actually become a little bit
smarter by going in and trying to solve those problems. Now, one of the problems that I really liked
is the problem they have on today, which has about “how the Greeks could
disprove the flat earth theory salt there?” So if you want, you can just click this link here below. Now the five on the first of you who does, that will get 20% off the annual fee
of brilliant and that will unlock all of the daily problems, that weekly problems and all of
the courses that are inside there. So I highly recommend you to check it out. It is a great tool. I highly recommend it. And, um, yeah, let me know what you think about it. Now guys, before I let you go, right, check out the Mentor Aviation APP. Just today we have released the first
out of three upgrades to the APP, which will make it much better looking, much easy to use and it’s one
step on my quest to make um, mentor aviation into
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I’m doing things like wind shear, escape maneuvers, or um, a rejected takeoff and
evacuation or T cast maneuvers. Have an absolutely fantastic day. Wherever you are, and I’ll see you next time. Bye. Bye.

Only registered users can comment.

  1. The best analogy I gave for torque during my flight instructor days was using a drill and the screw getting stuck. The screw and motor is rotating clockwise but when the screw gets stuck, the drill moves the opposite direction. It’s always an easy way to visualize torque

  2. on prop aircraft prop makes reactive momentum that banks all aircraft and makes it turns on left or right side, to provide aircraft to fly straight ahead it is needed to put some rudder and aileron action and elevator to keep height, if aircraft has 2 engines on wings and both turns in same directions , both banks aircraft in same direction, that is why vertical stabilizer has some angle , and is not straight as longitudinal axis of fuselage

  3. Takeoff, rapid descent, rolls, spins, short landings, CRM, communicating, crew rests: all the things I have learned just from watching Patxi in this episode!

  4. My dad flew B-17s and B-29s during the war. It used to drive him crazy to be in a piston airliner when the flight engineer failed to keep the engines in sync. I guess it was keeping the props in sync.

  5. If it rotates the other way, then the plane would go backward and it wouldn't fly like that, its not a trainset where the train can travel backward using a cab cars for pushmode.

  6. The newest 'Flight Gear' using a single propeller Cessna actually tries to rotate out on takeoff and you have to use the rudder to make it go strait. Is this for real? The Harrier sounds more like this torque problem than a gyroscope problem. Wouldn't that just make motion sluggish?

  7. P-factor is actually because the blade is moving forward, not because it is moving down. By forward I do not mean the overall forward motion of the plane, I mean the axis is not quite horizontal, the most extreme example of this is a helicopter with a vertical axis. In the case of a helicopter in forward motion, this effect is mitigated by mounting the blades on a flex point [hinges or rubber] so they can rise when moving forward and drop when moving back which changes the relative airflow and effective angle of attack; equalizing the lift between the advancing and retreating side.

  8. Ok well a few things need a little bit of clarification but in general good video. 1 the harrier has a single Rolls Royce Pegasus 2 spool engine (originally Bristol Siddeley) and it was designed from the outset as a contra rotating aircraft using data from the RR TMR (thrust measuring Rig) or as it was commonly called the flying bedstead. 2 Most american gas turbine engines turn anti clockwise as observed looking into the front of the engine (PW and GE). Most RR civil engines turn clockwise from the same viewpoint but some RR military engines are known to turn anti clockwise . I believe the Trent 1000 is contra-rotating with a fan that turns clockwise but intermediate spool that turns anti-clockwise and a HP spool that turns clockwise in order to reduce gyro effects and allow for a thinner pylon. 3 A few prop aircraft have been fitted with contra rotating props to supposedly allow for greater power and greater efficiency but this is counteracted by greater noise , vibration and complex gearboxes (yes i am looking at you Airbus A400 atlas and Tupolev "bear") By the way i worked 10 years for Rolls-Royce and so far 17 years for another gas turbine company here in the USA.

  9. Isn't that counter rotating twin spool engines will cancel outs most of the gyroscopic effect within the engine? The HP spool is running faster although it has a smaller mass compared to the low speed spool?

  10. That is fascinating. I never knew jet engines rotate the same direction and have always assumed they rotate in opposite directions to balance the torque…I was wrong all that time. Thanks for another great explanation.

  11. Usually good, but some comments on this one:
    You talk about 'jaw', where I think you mean 'yaw'.
    Where you mention the 'propellor going down' I think you mean the 'propellor blade going down'.
    Helicopters have 'rotors' not 'propellors'.

  12. Uups… I should have known that. I mean , I am Physicist, and I never thought about that a single engine propeller driven plane has to cope with conservation of angular momentum…That is very embarrassing for me….

  13. After watching an Airforceproud95 video, I'm glad I could watch this video and regain some aviation intelligence!

  14. Can I ask of you to do a video of flight Giant 3591 and what you think may have caused the crash a lil over a week ago! It left Miami inbound for Houston Tx when it fell from the sky into Trinity Bay or northeast Galveston Bay. Thanks in advance and thankyou (and all pilots who risk their lives everyday) delivering goods and passengers. My prayers are with the families and their friends. Thanks.

  15. Dude. You know first hand that the earth is flat. It's a fact that all comercial pilots are shills for the gov. Why else would they put limits on elevation for civillian pilots?

  16. ok so 1 propeller has an effect on a single engine Cessna. So what would the effect be on the Cessna Sky master? do it's props turn the same way or are they counter rotating? with me so far? good. lol

  17. Dear @Mentour – I love your videos, but they have one little thing that annoys me: the music at the beginning or the end of the video is too loud compared to your voice. So I always have to turn the volume up once the video starts after the intro and then the music at the end wakes up my little daughter 🙂 Can you adjust it in a way, that it stays on the same level during the actual video and the intro/outro? Thanks 🙂

  18. Last year I had the chance to see a real Harrier in action during an airshow in Lleida. What a spectacular aircraft.

  19. Hmmm… At 4:17 I think you said Vmcg. It’s Vmc or Vmca in the USA. Was this just the accent or is it different in Europe?

  20. Surely there’s no torque effect with jet engines because the force is not leveraging against the aircraft body, unless it’s a turbo prop

  21. @mentour_pilot why does the MD88 JT8D have a static’s grate over the intake if the engines are already mounted above the wings and there’s a low risk of FPI

  22. At the beginning of the video with the turbine footage I actually rotated my iOS device and the rotation animation combined with the turbine engine footage looked cool. Maybe it looks cool on android too.

  23. Back in the time i was playing War Thunder, the engine momentum was so annoying, or better the people who cant handle it.
    They crashed the plane befor or very short after take off, because they just slam the thrust lever full forward and dont use the rudder. Do that in a Bf 109 and you instantly lost controll, the 109 break out to the left and flip over.
    Its so easy to take off a Bf 109 if you know how.
    Hold the brake, move the thrust lever 1/4-1/2 forward, wait until the RPM rise, release the brake, start rolling, move the thrust lever slowly forward and hold the plane with the rudder on the runway, take off. Its no rocket science, but in every battle (in realistic setting) at least 4 people crashed on the runway.

  24. The constant references to BRILLIANT are a very good idea. When I was a kid, if you didn't know your subject, you FAILED THE EXAM. No messing about, no appeals, no soft marking or 'flexible reassessment' or 'compassion'; you FAILED. I don't think teachers are even allowed to use the word 'fail' these days. Too harsh. Too cruel. Too negative. Too judgemental. Too discriminatory. Even sitting exams is something some authorities want to phase out, so that everybody can go through life without being tested in any way whatsoever. A poor exam performance gains you something ridiculously positive like 'a successful APG' [Alternative Passing Grade] and a great big smiley face. 🙂

    Well I want my pilots and flight crew to have passed exams. I want them to be able to present a YouTube channel like this one and take a positive delight in handing on their knowledge, expertise and enthusiasm. For anybody contemplating a career in commercial aviation, it's important that they realise it's tough to succeed. Not impossible, but tough. There could be people watching this great Channel who've never been allowed to fail before. Gentle schooling and kind, understanding teachers may make poor students feel good about themselves, but out in the real world, they're going to get an almighty shock when they sit their first 'grown-up' exams.

    It's good (but depressing!) that Mentour Pilot tells it like it is. You can't expect to coast through your courses and get those stripes/bars/stars/wings just for attending. If you ever hope to get command of the Enterprise, you'd better know a bit more stuff than how to order Earl Grey tea from the replicator!

  25. Great explanation! Only slight inconsistency I have noticed in this and other videos when you are animating jet engines with your fingers, you counterrotate your fingers instead of rotating them the same direction as you describe jet engines do.

  26. I usually read in specs for airliners that each model plane can use more than one model engine. A 737 could be spec'd with Pratt & Whitney engines, or a similar Rolls Royce model instead. Since you're saying it's to an airline's advantage to have as few spares as possible, does it matter then if a plane is fitted with different models of engines, or do both engines on any particular plane have to match?

  27. So, what about two-engined propeller jets? Would it make sense to rotate them counterwise to avoid critical engine?

  28. I'm a conspiracy theorist. I hate that conspiracy theorists all get grouped into one. Not all believe the stupid shit. I don't believe in chemtrails or whatever this jet fuel hoax crap is. I believe we went to the moon – the confusion comes because fake video is getting mixed in with real. I suspect fake "official" video was filmed as a matter of "national security," and somehow portions of that video have ended up in the public. We had to beat the Soviet Union to the moon. Don't get me started on flat earth. What I get into is more conspiracy about control of society and government lies. Anyone who believes everything they're told isn't thinking. A fascinating documentary everyone should watch is called "The Century of the Self." You're not buying the newest iphone because you really need it, you're buying it because someone else wants you to and they know exactly how to make you want it. Please don't assume all conspiracy theorists are out of touch with reality, actually it's quite the opposite.

  29. Which way do the Jet Engines rotate? And WHY?!

    It depends on the manufacturer. Why? It's just the way it was designed. Some engines have counter-rotating shafts like the GE90.

    Saved you 15 minutes and 53 seconds

  30. SWA Flight 3472 (2016) and 1380 (2018) with the catastrophic left engine (#1) failures. Is it possible to predict the trajectory of the broken blade in the engine #2 on the right side? Is it correct to say that right side of B737-700 is safer?

  31. Great video as always. One or two points, though. Engine torque on a propellor driven aircraft is important, the stronger the engine the more the torque effect. Back when we had taildragger planes you had to come on the power fairly gently on take off to prevent ground looping. Tricycle undercarriages on modern planes have helped negate the torque effect on take off but we used to smile at learner pilots taking off with a port wing low attitude because they failed to compensate for torque. The other point is that the P Factor produces a pitch up when increasing power, much like the B737's that you currently fly.However, I guess I'm just nit-picking. I always enjoy your videos and look forward to many more.
    Take care.

  32. If you look at a contrail it is obvious that it is producing a spiral. It appears as a spring-like shape. I have asked about this, and was informed that the fans suppress the exhaust stream from rotation and that the rotation of the con trail is produced by the wing tip vortices. However, after looking at a number of photos and videos of wing tip vortexes, it appears as if they cancel each other out due to the fact that they revolve in opposite directions. This make me think that there must be some residual spin induced by the engines which cause the spiral imprint of the contrail. I am trying to determine the reason why contrails persist for such long periods of time, as they can often be seen stretching from horizon to horizon. Is there some residual spin produced by the engine in spite of the suppression of the spin by the fans? Love your show, thank you.

  33. I just watched a YouTube video of the engines on a Dash 8 turboprop plane starting up, and I noticed the engines on that rotate the same direction also, despite the difference in moment arm length you talked about. I understand what you said about the cost difference which justifies not having counter-rotating engines on airliners, but how big does the plane have to be for the difference of moment arm length difference on a turboprop plane to really have a problem should the critical engine fail?

  34. P38 documentaries on YouTube address this issue. Good history and fun to watch. Charles Lindbergh was even flying a p38 and increased the range and endurance of the p38 because of his experience. He even shot down a Japanese zero during ww2 but that got him banned from flying and he got sent home.

  35. I would assume in opposing directions, although it might be a bit expensive in fabrication to make opposing blades for the miner gyroscopic effect you would get off the engines.

  36. how come on prop there are less counter-rotating a/c than the props turning the same way and does the fwd mounted engine have a different effect than a rear mounted engine 737 v DC-9 and your dog is saying do you have to make this video while im trying to take a nap im going to embarrass you

  37. You are all wrong …. above the equator the engine rotates CW and south of the equator CCW…. just like your toilet

  38. Greetings from Texas. I was wondering if you could tell me if the landing gear wheels are still spinning when retracted into the aircraft?

  39. Not only are you my go to for anything and everything related to aviation and avionics but the the most fantastic YouTuber. Also, your Dog is the cutest animal in the world. Such a character. Keep up the great work. I look forward to all your videos and your app is awesome. Thank you and as always, have a fantastic day.

  40. 11:48 Generally when talking about left, right, direction of rotation, etc, this is done from the point of view of the pilot (or driver or operator etc). So the Boeing 737 engines would more likely be referred to as rotating clockwise and the Boeing 787 engines as rotating counterclockwise.

  41. Of COURSE the engine is the most expensive thing on an aircraft; you guys don't have to deal with a transmission…

  42. Is there a way to capture kinetic energy from a falling plane or gliding plane and turn it into electrical energy in order to power propeller or turbine motors? Regenerative hybrid system as in road cars.

  43. question! is aircraft ingine fix with the wings is durable? can u explain please beacause of my dout..the engine connected between the wings is a big question for me, how durable is it?

  44. The fan blades are counter-rotating towards the fuselage to keep the aircraft stable and to reduce unwanted engibe yaw motion.

  45. Yes single propeller plane's are problems. Their propeller tries to rotate the entire aircraft, unless it's a contra rotating prop. This is how it works. A contra prop is two propellers mounted on the same nosecone as each other
    But they rotate opposite to each other. Say you have a contra prop, the front propeller rotates clockwise while the one behind the clockwise prop spins counter clockwise. That way to prevent the torque because if one is spinning clockwise, it would rotate the plane clockwise, but if it's a contra prop, and they opposite to each other, the plane won't be rotated by the props unless one has more horse-power than the other
    So if you have a contra prop, and the two props on a nosecone spins opposite to each other, if one is stronger than the other, then the stronger propeller will rotate the PLANE.

  46. So on aircraft that have two propeller engines on the wings, do these engines rotate “towards” each other (i.e. down on the inner side) or “away from” each other (up on the inner side)? Or does it not matter?

  47. IIRC the P-38 lightning had counter rotating props but both of its engines were critical engines. There was a reason they did it that way, but I can't remember what it was.

  48. I know you are not an engineer – but please look up moments and momentum – and stop saying momentum when you mean moment

  49. When the US Govt was developing the twin mustang around WW2 they discovered that both engines had to be turning towards the fuselage so the plane could take off. If I remember correctly, it had to deal with the torque of both engines.

  50. Thank you sir for doing a great job at answering all of these questions in such a clear manner. I learn random things on youtube all the time and it's great to learn.

  51. Harrier jump jet was a POS in engineering. Known as the widow maker for a reason. F-35 is the upgrade to the harrier with the same hovering effect.

  52. Stop this brilliant shit. No 1 caress or GAF. Just for you to make extra money with the lame discount code. Sooo annoying.

  53. I have been checking various videos to find out how these turbine blades are rotating. Is there an electric motor or something to make them turn in the first place? Hopefully Capt. can explain. Thanks

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